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By Luke M. Snell
The farmer now has quality materials and a mixture design tailored to what he needs. Now it’s time to make the concrete. The self-help books of the time tried to simplify the process by providing pictures of each step, which may appear simple in a book, but making concrete is hard work.
The first step (Picture 1) is to gather all the necessary materials and to have a work platform to make the concrete. The work platform can be any level spot. In this picture, the farmer built a working platform out of wood.
The next step (Picture 2) is to accurately measure the amount of sand needed for the mixture. The farmer used a bottomless box (see Part 3, Getting the Right Mixture) to get the volume of sand correct according to the mixture design. In this picture the bottomless box looks to be 3 cubic feet.
The farmer added the cement directly onto the sand (Picture 3). Note that the farmer did not need to measure the amount of cement in the bottomless box since it came in a 1 cubic foot bag. The cement bags appear to be made of cloth. These bags could be recycled if returned to the cement company undamaged.
They would then mix the sand and cement together (Picture 4). They know they are done when the sand and cement appear to be uniformly mixed.
Now they are ready to add the rock or coarse aggregate (Picture 5). They placed the bottomless box directly on the cement and sand pile. The wheelbarrow and the ramp made this process a little easier.
After mixing the rock into sand and cement, water would be added. A predetermined amount would be measured and added so that they would not get too much water into the mixture (Picture 6).
The final step is mixing all the ingredient together. They knew they were done when the entire mixture was of uniform appearance (Picture 7). In the picture, they divided the pile into two parts for ease of mixing. They would put the piles back together as a final step.
If you have ever mixed concrete by hand, you know how tiring this work can be. Unfortunately for the farmers, their work is not done. They now must place the concrete--without pumps, conveyor belts, power buggies, or vibrators, so they still have a lot of work to do. The next (and last) article in this series will discuss how the farmer placed the concrete.
To read Part 1, Sand, click here.
To read Part 2, Concrete Materials, click here.
To read Part 3, Concrete Mixtures, click here.
To read Part 5, Placing the Concrete, click here.
Luke M. Snell is a concrete historian and Emeritus Professor at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville.